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What is Tourette Syndrome? Types, causes and ways to treat it

Study guide




Have you ever encountered children with their own nervous breakdowns? Some people, for example, raise their shoulders, press their eyelids together, or make a special noise with their nose. These people probably have Tourette’s syndrome. Tourette’s syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive movements or the production of unwanted sounds (tics) that are not easily controlled. In this article, we talk about “how” about Tourette’s syndrome and its symptoms and control methods.

What is Tourette Syndrome?

A person with Tourette’s syndrome may blink rapidly, raise his shoulders, make strange noises, or use profanity and insults.

Nerve tics usually present between the ages of 2 and 15 with an average of about 6 years.
Men are three to four times more likely to develop Tourette’s syndrome than women.

Although there is no specific treatment for Tourette’s syndrome, there are ways to control it. Because the nerve impulses caused by Tourette’s syndrome are not very annoying for many people, they do not need treatment. These tics usually subside or control after adolescence.

Types of Tort syndrome syndrome

Ticks (sudden, short, rapid, intermittent movements or sounds) are a clear sign of Tourette’s syndrome. These nerve tics usually occur in mild to severe to severe forms. Severe tics often interfere with relationships and daily activities and reduce the quality of life.

Nerve tics caused by this syndrome are classified into two general categories:

  • Simple ticksThese are tics that are sudden, short, and repetitive and involve a small number of muscles in the body.
  • Complex ticksThese ticks contain distinct and coordinated patterns that involve multiple muscles.

Another division is the division of ticks into two categories Movement And Audio Is. Movement tics usually begin before the vocal type; But the range of tics that people with this syndrome get varies.

1. Movement Ticks

Among the movement ticks, we can mention its simple and complex types:

  • Simple movement ticksSimple movement tics include blinking, shaking the head, raising the shoulder, rapid eye movement, rapid nasal movement, and frequent mouth movements.
  • Complex motor ticsComplex movement ticks also include touching or smelling objects, repeating the movements of others, performing movements with a certain pattern, performing unpleasant movements, bending or twisting and jumping.

2. Audio Ticks

Of the vocal folds seen in Tourette Syndrome, the following two types are simple and complex:

  • Simple audio ticksMaking a snoring sound through the nose, coughing, clearing the throat or making an animal-like sound;
  • Complex audio ticks: Repeating your own words or professions, repeating the words or professions of others and using obscene, obscene or insulting words.
Tickets may also:
  • Vary in type, recurrence, and severity in affected individuals;
  • Intensify when the affected person becomes ill, anxious, worried, tired, or excited;
  • Occur at bedtime;
  • Their type and intensity vary over time;
  • The early years of adolescence should be more intense and their severity should decrease with age.
Before the onset of motor or vocal cues, the person may feel restless (a kind of alert and warning feeling); For example, his body may feel itchy or tingling or stuffy. In this case, the onset of nervous tics can alleviate these annoying symptoms. Some people with a lot of effort can temporarily stop a tic or prevent it from coming back.

Causes of Tourette Syndrome

Tort Syndrome, Causes of Tort Syndrome

The exact cause of Tourette’s syndrome is not known. This syndrome is a complex disorder that may be a combination of genetics and environmental factors. Brain chemicals that transmit nerve pulses (neurotransmitters), such as dopamine and serotonin, may play a role in causing this syndrome.

risk factors

Risk factors for Tourette’s syndrome include:

  • family historyIf a family member has had Tourette’s syndrome or other tick-borne disorders, the risk of developing Tourette’s syndrome increases.
  • GenderMen are 3 to 4 times more likely than women to develop Tourette’s syndrome.

Should someone with Tourette Syndrome see a doctor?

People with Tourette’s syndrome usually have a healthy and active life; But the syndrome involves behavioral and social challenges that may damage their social standing.

On the other hand, the syndrome is often associated with certain disorders and special conditions and can be a sign to see a doctor. These include:

  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD);
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD);
  • Autism spectrum disorder;
  • Inability to learn;
  • Sleep disorders;
  • Depression;
  • Anxiety disorders;
  • Tic pain, especially headache;
  • Difficulty managing anger.

When to see a doctor?

As we said, ticks usually appear between the ages of 2 and 15 with an average of about 6 years. See your pediatrician if you notice that your baby is making a series of involuntary movements or noises.

Of course, not all nerve endings are a sign of Tourette’s syndrome. Many baby ticks go away on their own after a few weeks or months; But if a child has unusual behavior, the cause should be sought to prevent the possibility of illness becoming complicated.

Is Tourette Syndrome Curable?

There is no specific treatment for this syndrome; But people are taught different ways to control the tics that interfere with their daily activities and tasks; Of course, severe tics are usually uncontrollable.

Pharmacological treatments

There are a number of medications that can be used to control or reduce ticks. These drugs include the following:

  • Dopamine control or blocking drugsFlufenazine, haloperidol (Haldel), Rizperidone (Rizpredal) and Pimozide (Urap) are effective in controlling ticks. Side effects of these drugs include weight gain and involuntary repetitive movements. Tetrabenazine is recommended to control nerve tics; But this drug can also cause severe depression in the user.
  • Botulinum injection (Botox)Injecting this medicine into the affected muscle may improve simple or vocal tics.
  • Medications for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)Stimulants such as methylphenidate and drugs containing dextroamphetamine can increase attention and concentration; But in some cases, these drugs may have the opposite effect and increase the patient’s nervous system.
  • Central adrenergic inhibitorsMedications such as clonidine and guanfacine, which are commonly prescribed to treat high blood pressure, may be able to control behavioral symptoms such as impulse control and anger attacks. Possible side effects of these drugs are drowsiness.
  • AntidepressantsFluoxetine can improve the symptoms of sadness, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  • Antiepileptic drugsRecent studies have shown that the symptoms of some people with Tourette’s syndrome are reduced by taking topiramate, which is used to treat epilepsy.

Non-pharmacological treatments

  • Behavior therapyBehavioral-cognitive interventions to relieve tics may help the sufferer. These include learning to quit, controlling tics, identifying warning signs before the onset of nerve tics, and learning voluntary movements that are inconsistent with the tics.
  • PsychotherapyIn addition to teaching you to overcome Tourette’s syndrome, psychotherapy helps alleviate the complexities of neurological disorders such as ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, or anxiety.
  • Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)This method is used in severe cases where other treatments do not work. In this procedure, a battery-powered medical device is inserted into a patient’s brain to stimulate areas of the brain that control movement. This treatment is still in its infancy and further studies are needed to ensure its safety and effectiveness.

last word

Although Tourette’s syndrome cannot be treated, it can be controlled by currently known methods. If you have experience in this field, for example, you know a person who has this syndrome and you have seen ways to control his disease, we are happy to share with us.

Warning! This article is for educational purposes only and you should consult your doctor or specialist to use it. more information

Source

nhs

mayoclinic

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What is Tourette Syndrome? Types, causes and ways to treat it

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