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What is a hemangioma? Types, symptoms, methods of diagnosis and treatment

Study guide




Hemangiomas are tufts of extra blood vessels that commonly occur in children and are sometimes referred to as strawberry hemangiomas because of the color and appearance of the strawberry. Hemangiomas are more likely to be present at birth and then to go away without treatment. Do you know what parts of the body this disease affects and what are its symptoms and treatment? ‌ In this article, we will answer these questions.

Is hemangioma important?

About one in 15 babies has a hemangioma, which is not a problem for most babies. However, some hemangiomas may open and cause bleeding and scarring. These can be painful depending on the size, location and extent of the discharge. It may also be associated with other disorders of the central nervous system or spine.

Congenital hemangiomas are tufts of extra blood vessels that commonly occur at birth.

Hemangiomas are tufts of extra blood vessels that commonly occur in the following organs:

  • the brain;
  • Liver;
  • Kidney;
  • Respiratory system organs;
  • Other parts of the digestive system.

Hemangiomas that affect the limbs usually do not cause problems. In the following, we will examine two common and important types of hemangiomas.

Skin hemangiomas

Hemangiomas are tufts of extra blood vessels that commonly occur in the body. The exact cause of this is not yet known, but it seems that the production of certain proteins by the placenta during pregnancy is the cause.

Cutaneous hemangiomas are tufts of extra blood vessels that commonly occur on the surface of the skin or on the inside of the skin. Deeper hemangiomas are darker in color. At first, the hemangioma may be a congenital red spot on the skin. But it is gradually becoming more prominent.

Hemangiomas are more likely to be present at birth and in the first 2 to 3 weeks of life. They grow rapidly over 4 to 6 months. Then they stop growing for a few months or years and their size stays the same and then they gradually shrink and shrink. Neonatal hemangiomas are more likely to be present at the trunk, but may also appear on the neck.

The cause of cutaneous hemangiomas is not known, but it usually occurs in the following cases:

  • Immature musicians;
  • Cesarean section infants;
  • Low birth weight.

Neonatal hemangiomas are more common in females but are less common. In some cases, the hemangioma is familial. These hemangiomas can develop spontaneously or have a genetic cause. Because the cause of this type of hemangioma is not known, there is no way to prevent it.

Complications of cutaneous hemangiomas

Complications of this hemangioma are very rare. If the hemangioma grows quickly or is in sensitive areas, it can cause the following complications:

  • Wound;
  • Secondary infection;
  • Change in vision (in hemangiomas of the eye);
  • Shortness of breath (in large hemangiomas on the throat or nose).

Hepatic hemangiomas

Hepatic hemangiomas, or hepatic hemangiomas, occur in the liver and may or may not be associated with neonatal hemangiomas. Non-neonatal hepatic hemangiomas appear to be due to estrogen sensitivity.

Many menopausal women use alternative estrogen during menopause to minimize the symptoms of estrogen levels. This extra estrogen can stimulate hepatic hemangiomas. Pregnancy and reducing the use of oral contraceptive pills can also increase the size of the hemangioma.

Hepatic hemangiomas are more common in people of all ages, but are more common in women in their 30s and 50s and are more common in women than men.

Symptoms of hemangioma

Hemangiomas are more likely to be present at birth, but they can sometimes be large or have multiple hemangiomas in sensitive areas.

Symptoms of internal organ hemangiomas

Internal hemangiomas may be associated with symptoms depending on the organ involved. For example, gastrointestinal or liver hemangiomas may have the following symptoms:

  • Vomit;
  • nausea;
  • Decreased appetite;
  • Abdominal discomfort;
  • Satiety.

Diagnosis of hemangiomas

Diagnosis is usually made by an eye examination by a doctor, and if the hemangioma is abnormally shaped, a biopsy or blood test may be ordered. Internal hemangiomas are usually characterized by a variety of imaging modalities, such as:

  • sonography;
  • MRI;
  • CT scan.

Hemangioma treatment

Hemangioma treatment

Single and small hemangiomas usually do not need treatment and go away on their own. However, in some cases treatment may be needed, for example:

  • Cutaneous hemangioma of the wound;
  • Hemangiomas in certain areas of the body, such as the lips, nose, eyes, anus, and genitals;
  • When the size of the hemangioma is more than 3 cm;
  • When more than 5 hemangiomas are seen in the child’s body.

Here are some treatment options.

1. Beta blockers

  • Oral propranolol: The first option is to treat superficial hemangiomas.
  • Topical ointments such as thymolol gel: It is mostly used for small superficial hemangiomas, which are usually safe to use under the supervision of a doctor.

۲. Corticosteroid medication

Corticosteroids may be injected into the hemangioma to reduce growth and stop the inflammation. Peripheral steroids such as prednisone and prindosolone are not commonly prescribed and are used in people who can not use beta blockers. This treatment can have side effects, including:

  • Cataracts;
  • Growth retardation;
  • Hyperglycemia;
  • Hypertension.

3. laser therapy

Laser therapy is commonly used to treat hemangiomas of the skin. In some cases, laser therapy is used to reduce redness and improve appearance.

4. Medicinal gel

Bekaplermin gel is expensive and is used in some studies to treat chronic wound hemangiomas. Of course, if used consistently, it can increase the risk of cancer.

5. Surgery

Small hemangiomas can be surgically removed.

Treatment of internal limb hemangiomas

Hemangiomas inside the body need treatment when they become too large or cause pain. Treatment options for this type of hemangioma include the following:

  • Hemangioma removal;
  • Removal of the affected limb or area;
  • Closure of the vessel leading to hemangioma in hepatic hemangioma.

A few important points

  • Hemangiomas usually go away on their own, but depending on their location, size, and side effects, they need to be treated.
  • Hemangiomas grow before they die, which can be alarming, but usually stops.
  • Hemangiomas near the mouth, nose and eyes should be examined by a doctor.
  • If there are sores and bleeding in the hemangioma, the doctor should examine it.

You say

How familiar are you with hemangiomas? ‌ Have you seen this noncancerous growth of blood vessels in your body or those around you? If you wish, you can write your experience and opinion in the comments section and send this article to your friends through social networks.

Warning! This article is for educational purposes only and you need to consult your doctor or specialist to use it. more information

Source

healthline

healthline

mayoclinic

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What is a hemangioma? Types, symptoms, methods of diagnosis and treatment

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