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Use support tools to present and defend ideas

Study guide




Once a useful idea has come to your mind, the most important step is to present and describe it to others. Sometimes it is necessary to defend your beliefs or get a positive opinion from others about a particular issue. In this way, there are various tools to support the idea and the topic of discussion. In this article, you will get acquainted with some of the most common backup tools.

Analogy

Analogies make comparisons between ideas and objects that have common aspects or characteristics; But they are different in other areas. This cognitive process transfers information or meaning from a particular topic (comparable or source) to another topic (goal) to infer meaning or prove a argument. In speech, analogy can be a powerful linguistic tool for speakers to guide and influence the audience’s emotions and perceptions.

Analogy in speech

From a linguistic point of view, analogy can be a verbal or written comparison between two words (or a set of words) to determine a form of semantic similarity between them. Thus, speakers often use analogies to reinforce their political and philosophical arguments; Even when the similarity of meaning is small or non-existent (if carefully formed for the audience).

Speakers often talk about topics, concepts, or places that may be alien or abstract to the audience. To build trust and credibility on stage, speakers always link their main topic or discussion to the values, beliefs and knowledge of their audience. Explaining how a relationship is related to a comparable or similar set of different ideas helps to bridge this gap in understanding; Especially for listeners who are not able to formulate a relationship themselves. Similarly, analogies are often used to persuade people who cannot recognize incomplete or non-existent arguments within a speech.

Analogy and its role in language

Analogies that begin with phrases such as “like,” “otherwise,” and “like that” rely on the recipient’s deductive understanding of the message that includes such expressions. Analogy is important not only in ordinary language and common sense (where proverbs and idioms have many examples of its use), but also in science, philosophy, and the humanities. Speakers and writers also use analogies to reinforce and inspire their descriptions, and to articulate their thoughts and ideas more clearly and accurately.

The concepts of connection, comparison, correspondence, mathematical and morphological similarity, homogeneity, image, metaphor, similarity and similarity are largely related to analogy. In cognitive linguistics, the discussion of conceptual metaphor may be equated with analogy.

Tips for using analogy

  • Think about the demographic characteristics of the audience. What are their interests, beliefs and values? Choose an appropriate analogy that the audience can relate to.
  • Keep analogies concise and simple. Extreme analogies, rather than reinforcements, may weaken the debate.
  • Instead of using analogy as the main focus of your presentation, think of it as a springboard.
  • Bring analogies from personal experiences to build authenticity and credibility for the audience.

definitions

It is easier to back up your ideas when you provide definitions that ensure that you and your audience understand each other.

Introduction

During the introduction to your talk or presentation, you promise the audience. You have told them that in return for their attention, you are giving them information that answers the questions they have planted from the beginning.

You are now presenting the main part of your speech and the audience is expecting you to do what you promised.

There is only one problem. Even though you have already decided what to say in response, you will find that sometimes the listeners may lose focus; Because they do not understand what you are saying.

One way to make sure your answer is focused is to tell the audience what you are talking about. In other words, define your key terms. By doing this, you do two things: First, you show that you know what you are talking about. Second, by creating a common understanding of key terms, you prevent misunderstandings and misunderstandings. For example, perhaps your audience understands power in a Marxist way, and you want to express your presentation from a feminist perspective. With a brief definition, there will be no misconceptions. The audience may not agree with you; But you do not have to agree to understand your point.

A compliment assures you and your audience that you are talking about something.

For example, you could define a fruit salad with bananas, pineapples, and yellow apples (preferably you have a reason for this). By that definition, when you later say that fruit salad does not have pieces of red apple, the audience will not object. Your definition of a fruit salad supports this idea.

Provide definitions

To define key terms, you must first state what they are. Always consider keywords in the form of questions. These are the main concepts for you and by leaving them aside, it is very likely that you will answer a different question from your main one.

There are often other key terms to consider, and it is usually worth taking the time to see which key concepts they are. The number of definitions you consider depends on the length of your talk. Sometimes it takes a while to think about which terms are central. It’s worth the time; Because you can use these concepts later without providing further descriptions or comments. For this reason, you need to define the terms carefully.

For example, by providing a clear definition of “power”, you will convey the meaning you want each time you use the word in your speech.

Also, providing a definition of key terms is a signal to your audience that they know what you are talking about. By defining “power” explicitly, you show that you are aware of other interpretations of the term. In fact, it is often not necessary to state other interpretations; Unless the distinction between the meanings is a key aspect of your discussion.

Once you get credit, it’s easier to back up your ideas.

Visual display

Speakers often use visual tools to understand the content presented to the audience of informative and persuasive lectures. Visual aids can play an important role in how the audience understands the information presented. There are a variety of visual aids that range from special handouts that are distributed to attendees to PowerPoint presentation and presentation. The type of visual aids used by the speaker depends on his / her preference and the information he / she wants to present. Each type of visual aids has its own advantages and disadvantages that must be evaluated to ensure its overall benefits. Before adding visual aids to lectures, the speaker must determine whether he or she is using the instrument properly. Is it a visual tool for speech or a distraction?

Advance planning is essential when using visual aids. It is necessary to choose a tool that is suitable for the content and the audience. The purpose of visual aids, Reinforcement Is a presentation.

things

Using objects as visual aids involves bringing real objects for description during a speech. For example, knitting lectures may be given by bringing in a more effective rope.

  • Advantages: Using the real object is often necessary when you explain how something should be done so that the audience can fully understand the process.
  • Disadvantages: Some objects are too large or inaccessible to the speaker, and as a result, it is not easy to carry them to the speaker.

models

Models are used as an icon of another object when it is inappropriate or impossible to use a real object for any reason. Models of the human skeleton, solar system, or architecture are examples of this.

  • Advantages: Models can provide the audience with a simpler and more understandable representation of a real object or system; Especially when the object in question is too large or cannot be displayed in a lecture session.
  • Disadvantages: Sometimes the model may hurt the reality that is being talked about. For example, the enormous size of the solar system from a model is not comprehensible; Just as the real shape of the human body is not really visible from a fake mannequin.

Charts

Graphs are used to visualize the relationships between two different quantities. Different types of charts can be used as quantitative tools; Such as bar charts, line charts, pie charts and point charts.

  • Benefits: Charts help the audience visualize statistics; So they have more of an effect than verbally listing statistics.
  • Disadvantages: Graphs can easily bore the audience and cause confusion when presenting in a speech by giving too much detail.

maps

Maps show geographical areas that are important for speech. They are often used when expressing differences between geographical areas or showing something.

  • Advantages: When maps are simple and clear, they can be used effectively to point to specific areas. For example, a map showing the construction site for a new hospital could indicate its proximity to key locations, or a map can be used to show differences in the distribution of AIDS victims in North America and African countries.
  • Disadvantages: Including too many details on a map may cause the audience to lose focus on key points; Also, if the map is disproportionate or unrealistic, it may be ineffective in making the point.

Tables

Tables are rows and columns that organize words, symbols, and / or data.

  • Advantages: Good tables are easy to understand. They are a good way to compare facts and gain a better overall understanding of the subject matter. For example, the table is a good option for comparing monthly rainfall in three different countries.
  • Disadvantages: Tables are not very attractive or pleasing to the eye. If the speaker presents too much information in a small space or the table information is not arranged properly, it may make the audience bored. Tables are not a good option if the viewer needs a lot of time to understand them. It also becomes a visual distraction if the table is difficult to read; The size of the posts should not be too small or the posts should not be too close to each other. In such cases, the table will become more of a distraction and confusion for the audience than a way to improve the audience’s understanding.

Pictures

  • Advantages: Images are a good tool for pointing out a point or emphasizing a specific point to explain the subject. For example, when describing tins in a Third World country, it is helpful to show a picture of a tinsmith so that the listener can better understand how these people live. The photo is also a way for when the real object is not visible. For example, in a health and cocaine education class, the teacher could not bring cocaine to class; Because it is illegal; But it can show students a picture of cocaine. Showing local images can also help emphasize how important your subject is in the audience.
  • Disadvantages: If the photo is too small, it will only be a distraction. Magnifying images can be costly if you do not use PowerPoint or other display tools.

Draw or draw a shape

  • Advantages: Shape drawing or drawing is used when the photo cannot show or show exactly what the speaker wants. This method can also be used when the photo has a lot of details. For example, a diagram or form of the circulatory system throughout the body is much more effective than a realistic image of the human body to represent this system.
  • Disadvantages: If the shape is not drawn correctly, it will have a mixed and ineffective quality. Of course, you do not need to be a professional designer or painter to draw shapes, but you should be able to draw the desired content in a way that is clear and understandable to the audience.

What experiences do you have with presenting an idea or defending a topic in public or during a lecture? It is not bad to share it with us. In particular, do not withhold your useful tricks from the audience.

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Use support tools to present and defend ideas

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