In some lectures, the goal is not just to convey information, but the speaker also wants to convince the audience about a particular topic. Persuasive lectures have different purposes and types, each of which has its own characteristics. In this article, you will get acquainted with the types of persuasive speeches, their characteristics, how to prepare the text of the speech and the background of a convincing speech.
There are three types of persuasive speech, each of which we will explain separately.
- A truth-oriented persuasive speech
- A value-oriented persuasive speech
- Convincing policy-oriented speech
1. A convincing fact-based speech
In the Questions of Fact lecture, does the speaker try to show that his view is correct? Reality issues are one of the main topics in persuasive lectures and show whether something is real or not. In general, in matters of reality (also called the Proposition of Fact) it is said whether something is real, exists or does not exist. Truth-based lectures are different from policy-based lectures (Questions of Policy that describe what the situation should be) and value-oriented lectures (Questions of Value that show what is good, bad, beautiful, or valuable).
In a persuasive speech, the speaker provides an answer to the question and issue raised and tries to convince the audience that his or her answer is correct and that they can believe what he or she is saying. In fact, the speaker wants the audience to accept that his point of view is an indisputable truth.
Here are three types of reality issues:
- Historical discussions: A discussion about whether something happened in the past or something really happened.
- Current topics: Debate about whether something is happening right now (like global warming).
- Predicting the future: Predict what will happen in the future. The speaker identifies patterns based on past events and intends to convince the audience that the same event will occur in the future. For example, if one observes that the price of gasoline goes down just before the general election, one can convince others that the price of gasoline will also go down before the next general election.
Preparing a convincing truth-based speech
When preparing a persuasive talk based on truth-based topics, consider the following:
- Hypothesis: When writing a persuasive speech, first make a hypothesis about the truth in question that states whether something is true (that is, it happened or did not happen; it exists or does not exist).
- Organization and evidence: In general, the evidence should be presented thematically and carefully. The speaker should consider whether it is possible that the above observations actually occurred. Is the source of the evidence reliable, and were the witnesses in a position to accurately observe what they reported? Is there any reason to believe that our source of information is not neutral and that it is biased because of personal issues or prevailing thinking at the time of the event?
- Argument: The speaker usually uses inductive reasoning. In such an argument, the speaker first presents all his evidence and then draws conclusions based on that evidence and asks the audience to accept his conclusion. The speaker proves his position by providing convincing evidence in support of the hypothesis he has stated.
- Ethics: The speaker is morally responsible and must provide reliable and credible evidence to the audience and avoid bias when selecting evidence.
۲. A value-oriented persuasive speech
In this section, our focus is on convincing value-driven discourse. In this kind of discourse, we address the issue of whether one subject is right or wrong, moral or immoral, or better or worse than another. The arguments used here are based on judging the value of the issues under discussion.
Examples include lectures in which the speaker tries to convince the audience that, for example, driving at an unauthorized speed is incorrect; Pepsi is better than Coca-Cola; It is better to get married after getting to know each other during the engagement period than to have a quick and unknown marriage; Swimming is the best sport or bicycle is the best means of transportation on inner-city trips. In value-oriented persuasive lectures, we refer to specific actions; But we do not encourage the audience to take those actions.
Preparing a value-oriented persuasive speech
To prepare for this type of lecture, you must do the following:
- State your desires, information, and criteria.
- Provide evidence that leads your audience to the same conclusion you want. (Your claims must be consistent with the beliefs and feelings of your audience).
- Use facts to substantiate your claims.
- Pay attention to the feelings and values of the audience.
3. Convincing policy-oriented speech
In persuasive speeches in which we address policy and policy issues, we either support or oppose the status quo. In these lectures, we support a change in the status quo or the way things are done. In the hypothesis put forward in these lectures, there is an implied “must” or at least an “must”. The speaker wants the proposal in the speech to become a policy or policy. Issues of politics are different from issues of facts (which explain whether something is true, exists, or does not exist) and issues of value (which explain whether something is good, bad, beautiful, or valuable). In the following sections, we point out some effective ways to organize a persuasive policy-oriented speech.
One way to organize a persuasive, policy-oriented lecture is to describe an issue or problem and the solution. In implementing this method, you should pay attention to the following three basic points:
- Need: Convince the audience that there is a problem and we need to solve it or we need to change the status quo. The audience must first come to the conclusion that there is a problem to be solved and implement a plan.
- Program: Convince the audience that they should not interfere and just complain. Tell them what to do. Be sure to look at all the aspects that reduce the audience’s willingness to take practical action.
- possibility: Show your audience that your program will be successful. Explain the consequences; Use expert input and point to successful examples of similar programs running elsewhere.
Problem-solution by stating the cause
A common form of problem-solving organization is one in which the causes are also expressed. The discussion of the causes of the problem draws the audience’s attention to the important points that must be considered in the implementation of the solution. The main points in this method of organizing are:
- Question: Describe the nature and extent of the problem. In particular, describe the issue at hand and explain how important or large it is.
- Cause: Notice the direct relationship between the problem and its causes. Think of the problem as a “disability” caused by “causes.” Show the direct relationship between the problem and the cause; Don’t just show a relationship in which something happened before, after, or at the same time.
- Approach: Use causes as a criterion for evaluating solutions. For example, if a lecture states that the problem is caused by y, x, and z, a new solution or policy must address y, x, and z to resolve the issue.
Comparative advantages of solutions
If the audience has already been informed and accepted that there is a problem or problem, the speaker should focus primarily on comparing the advantages of the solution with those of other solutions. for this purpose:
- Summarize the issue: Do not try to convince the audience that there is a problem that needs to be addressed. Because they have already accepted this.
- Evaluate the various solutions: Discuss the various solutions and find a solution that most of all and from different aspects, solves the problem. Compare the solutions with each other and choose the best solution and suggest it to the audience.
- Make your final request: Ask the audience to accept and implement your strategy as their policy.
Monroe motivational sequence
Utilizing motivational sequencing is one of the most powerful ways to organize a persuasive speech. In the method of organization proposed by Alan Monroe, we first arouse a psychological need in the audience and then, we show how that need can be met by implementing the program or policy presented in the lecture. In this method, we must consider the following points:
- Attention: Get the audience’s attention to the subject by telling a detailed story, shocking examples, impressive statistics, or quotes.
- Need: Show that the subject of the speech depends on the psychological needs of each individual audience. The first assumption is based on the need of the audience to call them to action. Do not rely solely on proving that there is an important issue or problem. You have to show that this need does not go away on its own; So, convince the audience that each of them personally needs to take practical action to solve the problem.
- Satisfaction: Solve the problem. Provide clear and acceptable solutions that are practical and feasible for the government or society.
- Visualization: Tell the audience what will happen if the proposed solution is used or ignored. Visualize and be accurate. Draw a picture for the audience and show what benefits they will experience and what conditions will arise if the need is met through the proposed speech program.
- Action: Tell the audience what specific steps they need to take to resolve the issue and change the existing policy or practice.
Most of the time, the audience feels that the current situation is disappointing. The advantage of Monroe’s motivational sequence is that it emphasizes what the audience can do and focuses on their abilities.
What questions should you ask yourself before performing?
You should ask yourself the following questions when analyzing each type of persuasive speech:
- What is the purpose of the speaker?
- What are the main points?
- How does the structure of the speech help to present the speaker ‘s argument?
- How can a speaker convince the audience to care about the topic of the talk?
- How does the speaker use the evidence?
- From what sources does the speaker get help?