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Types of blood tests to diagnose and prevent disease

Study guide




Blood tests are one of the most effective ways to ensure proper body function and diagnosis. If you have regular blood tests, you will notice changes in your body over time and you can make the right decisions for your health. In the following, we will introduce you to the types of blood tests, how they are performed and the information they give you. Do not miss this article.

What is a blood test?

Blood tests are a common medical procedure that may be a regular part of your routine checkup. Although most blood tests do not require special preparation, some require that you do not eat anything for 8 to 12 hours before the test.

A small amount of blood is taken from you for a blood test. This blood is usually drawn from your hand using a syringe or may be obtained by piercing your fingertip. Laboratory staff examine the blood sample and, if necessary, separate the blood cells from the blood plasma fluid.

Your doctor can use the results of a blood test to diagnose or confirm the symptoms of the disease. Applications of blood tests for physicians:

  • Ensure proper functioning of organs such as liver, kidney, thyroid and heart;
  • Diagnosis of diseases such as cancer, AIDS, diabetes, anemia and cardiovascular disease;
  • Diagnosis of heart disease risk;
  • Ensure the effectiveness of the medications you take;
  • Assess your blood clotting.

When is a blood test necessary?

Your doctor will usually recommend that you have a blood test at least once a year. Of course, there are many important reasons to have more blood tests:

  • Abnormal and permanent symptoms that may be anything like fatigue, abnormal weight gain or new pain.
  • To improve your health, for example, knowing the amount of various elements in the blood, including the amount of saturated and unsaturated cholesterol, tips to change your diet or exercise program. By knowing your health, you can put aside unhealthy habits and pay more attention to your body’s nutrients.
  • Reduce the risk of disease or complications, because regular blood tests detect almost any signs of danger of any disease in the early stages. Many lung, heart, and kidney diseases are diagnosed with a blood test.
Consult your doctor if you want to repeat some tests more than once a year.

It is recommended that you perform these tests regularly to improve your health:

  • Complete blood count or CBC;
  • Basic metabolic testing;
  • Thyroid test;
  • Nutrient testing for iron and B vitamins.

Types of blood tests

At a routine check-up or diagnosis, you may be prescribed the following tests:

1. CBC test or complete blood count

In a CBC test, different blood components are measured, for example:

  • Red blood cells;
  • White blood cells;
  • hemoglobin;
  • Platelets;
  • Average size of red blood cells;
  • Hematocrit, the volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.

Read the CBC test

Normally the following is a sign of health in this test:

  • Red blood cells: 72.3 ۴ 4.32 million cells per microliter in men – 03.5.3.0 cells per microliter in women;
  • White blood cell: 3500 to 10500 cells per microliter;
  • Platelets: 150,000 to 450,000 per microliter;
  • hemoglobin: 13.5-17.5 grams per deciliter in men and 12-15.5 grams per deciliter in women;
  • Hematocrit: 38.8-50% in men and 5% 34.9% in women.

Abnormal levels of these can be a sign of the following complications:

  • Deficiency of nutrients, such as vitamin B-6 or B-12;
  • Iron deficiency;
  • Disease in the bone marrow;
  • Tissue swelling;
  • Infection;
  • Heart disease;
  • Cancer.

۲. Blood enzyme test

In this test, the amount of specific enzymes in the body is measured. The body uses enzymes to control the chemical reactions that take place inside it.

Testing your blood enzymes can help your doctor diagnose conditions such as heart attacks.

  • If a heart attack is possible, the heart enzyme troponin is measured, which is released only when the heart is damaged.
  • The enzyme CPK-1 is found in the lungs and brain. High levels of this enzyme are a sign of brain damage or cancer.
  • Another sign of a heart attack or heart injury is the enzyme CKP-2.
  • The enzyme CPK-3 is found in your heart and is released due to muscle swelling, injury or strenuous exercise.

3. Coagulation test

The clotting test, also known as the coagulation test, looks for proteins involved in blood clotting. This test is recommended if your doctor suspects a coagulation complication.

If a person is taking warfarin or other blood thinners, your doctor may order a special coagulation test to monitor your period.

The results of this test are used to diagnose the following diseases:

  • Acute myeloid leukemia;
  • Hemophilia (excessive bleeding);
  • Thrombosis or blood clots;
  • Liver disease;
  • Vitamin K deficiency.

4. Blood lipid test

You should have a lipoprotein or fat test if your doctor wants to check for the risk of coronary heart disease or other diseases related to cholesterol buildup in the arteries. The following information is obtained in this experiment:

  • Cholesterol level of unsaturated fats (bad cholesterol);
  • Cholesterol content of saturated fats (good cholesterol);
  • Total cholesterol;
  • Blood triglyceride levels.

Reading a blood lipid test

  • The amount of saturated fat: If it is more than 60 mg per deciliter, it is high; In men it is less if it is less than 40 mg / dl and in women it is less if it is less than 50 mg / dl.
  • The amount of unsaturated fatIf it is more than 160 mg per deciliter, it is high. If it is less than 100 mg, it is low.

You should not eat for 8 to 12 hours before having a lipoprotein or fat test.

If the test results show abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels, it may indicate a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.

5. Basic metabolic testing

Types of blood tests - basic metabolic

The basal metabolic rate, or BMP, determines the amount of different chemicals in the blood plasma. This test, also known as a blood test, provides information about bones, muscles, and organs.

A basal metabolic test measures the amount of the following substances in the blood:

  • Electrolytes;
  • Calcium;
  • Glucose;
  • Sodium;
  • potassium;
  • Carbon dioxide;
  • Chloride;
  • Blood urea nitrogen;
  • Creatinine.

BMP test provides the following information:

  • Unbalanced amount of calciumAbnormal calcium levels can be a sign of underlying diseases related to the kidneys, bones, cancer, malnutrition or other diseases.
  • Blood glucose levelsAbnormal blood glucose levels can be a sign of diabetes or the risk of developing it. You should not eat before this test.
  • kidneysExcess excretion in the blood, such as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, can be a sign of kidney problems.
  • ElectrolytesAbnormal electrolyte levels can be a sign of dehydration or kidney disease.

6. Thyroid test

A thyroid test or thyroid function test shows how your thyroid produces or responds to certain hormones. for example:

  • T3This hormone, together with T4 hormone, regulates your heart rate and body temperature.
  • RUThe T3 resin uptake test measures how thyroid-binding hormone binds to globin.
  • T4Thyroxine or T4 together with T3 regulates your metabolism and growth.
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone or TSHThis substance helps regulate the amount of hormones secreted by your thyroid.

Normal levels of these hormones:

  • T3: 100-200 ng per deciliter of blood;
  • T3RU: Depends on the amount of T3 hormone. If the amount of T3 is low, the amount will be high and vice versa;
  • T4: 5-12 micrograms per deciliter;
  • TSH: up to 0.4-4 million units per liter per liter.
Abnormal levels of these hormones in blood tests can be a sign of a variety of conditions, including protein deficiency, thyroid dysfunction, and abnormal levels of estrogen and progesterone.

7. Blood culture test

A blood culture test can help your doctor diagnose blood infections. This test is prescribed if your doctor thinks you have an infection. The following symptoms may be a sign of infection:

  • Fever or chills;
  • fatigue;
  • Urine less than normal;
  • Nausea;
  • Confused;
  • Palpitations or rapid breathing;
  • Swelling in various parts of the body;
  • Severe drop in blood pressure.

In this test, the blood sample is mixed with the culture medium so that the bacteria in your blood (if any) grow faster.

Which tests should you fast before?

Everything you eat and drink contains vitamins, proteins, and other nutrients that suddenly increase or decrease the amount of certain elements in your blood.

Eating 8 to 12 hours before a blood test means that these variables have no effect on the test results. Common tests you need to do Do not eat before:

  • Blood lipid tests;
  • Blood sugar tests;
  • Liver function;
  • Kidney function;
  • Basic metabolic testing;
  • Glucose test.

How is a normal blood test done?

How to do a blood test

Blood tests are usually done in a lab or doctor’s office and only take a few minutes. To perform a blood test, nurse or laboratory technician:

1. Cleanses the area of ​​the hand from which blood is drawn.

۲. A plastic bandage is tied over your arm to make the veins more visible.

3. The needle gently inserts the syringe into your vein to collect blood.

4. He pulls the syringe needle out of your hand, opens the plastic clamp, and the test is over.

5. The blood collection site is covered with a clean cotton swab and glued to it.

Risks of blood tests

The risks of routine tests are small:

  • Pain and discomfort at the injection site;
  • Fainting due to blood loss;
  • Rupture of a vessel.
The risk of infection is also very low. Contact your doctor immediately if you have symptoms such as swelling, redness, and fever.

Concluding remarks

Blood tests are one of the best methods of prevention. Your doctor may recommend a blood test for periodic checkups or if you have a specific illness. These tests are almost safe and are very useful for assessing health.

By knowing this and consulting your doctor, you can include these tests in your care plan to stay healthier and improve your life.

Warning! This article is for educational purposes only and you should consult your doctor or specialist to use it. more information

Source

webmd

healthline

medicalnewstoday

.



Types of blood tests to diagnose and prevent disease

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