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Traumatic brain injury in adults and children; How to diagnose and treat it

Study guide




When it hits the head or hits somewhere, the possibility of a stroke is the first thought that comes to mind. Traumatic brain injury is a common and mild brain injury that occurs as a result of various events. The most important symptom of this complication is headache and the recovery time is different for each person. However, the disappearance of symptoms for most people includes mental and physical rest and lasts from 14 to 21 days. Here are some common causes, symptoms, and treatments for stroke. Stay with us.

What is a stroke?

A concussion is a brain injury or minor concussion. This injury may occur after a blow to the head or a rapid movement of the head and brain back and forth. It can also be due to a blow to the body that pulls the head sharply back, forward or sideways. As a result of this injury, your mental state may change, which includes anesthesia.

Anyone can have a concussion as a result of a fall, car accident or any everyday accident. If you do high-impact sports such as football or boxing, you are more at risk for this injury. A concussion is not usually fatal, but it can have severe symptoms that require immediate treatment.

In a concussion, the nerves and blood vessels in your brain become stretched and bruised, which can cause chemical changes in your brain that temporarily disrupt its normal functioning. The brain is made up of soft tissue that is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid and protected by the skull. When your head is hit, it hits your brain. Sometimes, a blow causes your brain to move inside your skull.

As a result, your brain is not working properly. If you have a stroke, you may have visual impairment, loss of balance, or fainting. If a stroke occurs only once, it can not cause permanent damage to the brain. But multiple injuries over a lifetime can cause changes in the structure of the brain.

Symptoms of a concussion

The symptoms of a concussion will vary depending on the severity of the injury and the condition of the injured person. Not everyone loses consciousness due to a stroke and may have other symptoms.

It is very important to know the symptoms of a concussion and to be able to recognize them.

Symptoms that you may feel yourself

  • Memory impairment;
  • Confused;
  • Confusion or lethargy;
  • Dizziness;
  • Diplopia or blurred vision;
  • Headache;
  • Nausea or vomiting;
  • Sensitivity to light or sound;
  • Imbalance;
  • Reacts slowly to stimuli.

These symptoms may appear quickly or come to you hours, days, weeks or months after the injury.

The following symptoms may also occur during recovery:

  • Irritability;
  • Sensitivity to light or sound;
  • Difficulty concentrating;
  • Mild headache.

Signs you can see around you

A friend or relative around you may have suffered a concussion and may not be aware of it. These symptoms will help you diagnose the injury of others:

  • Irritability;
  • Imbalance;
  • Loss of coordination of body organs;
  • Gait disturbance;
  • Convulsions;
  • Bleeding or discharge of colorless fluid from the ear or nose;
  • Uneven pupil size of two eyes;
  • Abnormal movement of the eyes;
  • Long-term confusion;
  • Speech disorder;
  • Frequent vomiting;
  • Temporary loss of consciousness;
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If you notice these symptoms, see a doctor right away.

Types of concussions

The doctor will determine the severity of the stroke based on symptoms such as anesthesia, memory loss, and imbalance. The severity of a concussion has three degrees:

  • Grade 1 or Mild: Symptoms persist for less than 15 minutes and anesthesia does not occur.
  • Grade 2 or intermediate: Symptoms persist for more than 15 minutes and anesthesia does not occur.
  • Grade 3 or severe: The person loses consciousness, even if only for a few seconds.

Stroke in children

Because children’s heads are larger than the rest of their bodies, concussions are more common in young children. As children enter adolescence, their rapid growth in height and weight puts them at greater risk than adults. If a child has a stroke, an adult should be monitored for up to 24 hours.

Do not give your child any medicine, including aspirin, without consulting your doctor, as it may cause bleeding.

The child may not be able to express their feelings properly, so you need to look for behavioral changes. Symptoms of stroke in children:

  • Headache;
  • Dizziness;
  • Imbalance;
  • Nausea or vomiting;
  • fatigue;
  • Sensitivity to light or sound;
  • Slowness of thoughts or mental blur;
  • Impaired memory or concentration;
  • More irritability, discomfort, anxiety or feelings than usual;
  • sleep disorder.

Traumatic brain injury in children under one year

Children experience a variety of symptoms if they experience a concussion that may not be obvious at first. Children under one year of age, like adults and adolescents, do not show symptoms such as difficulty walking and speaking.

The most common symptoms in children under one year of age:

  • Vomit;
  • Discharge from the mouth, nostrils or nose;
  • Irritability;
  • Vertigo.

Although this injury rarely has a permanent effect on the brain, your child needs to be examined by a doctor. If the child is anesthetized, see a doctor immediately.

How is a stroke diagnosed?

Diagnosis of stroke with a doctor's examination

Most people can recover completely with the right treatment, but a concussion can be very serious. You should first see a doctor to determine the severity of the stroke. Your doctor will ask you questions about your injury and symptoms. He or she may also examine you for signs of possible symptoms. If you have a grade 3 stroke, you may need an MRI or CT scan of your brain.

If you have a seizure, your doctor will do an electroencephalogram to look at your brain waves. Some doctors use eye tests to diagnose this complication. In this test, the pupil size, eye movements and sensitivity to light are examined.

If you have a 1st or 2nd degree concussion, you will have to wait for your symptoms to go away. This recovery may take minutes, hours, days or even weeks.

Trauma treatment

The treatment for a concussion depends on the severity of your symptoms. You will need immediate medical attention if you have any of the following:

  • Bleeding in the brain;
  • Brain swelling;
  • Serious brain injury.

However, most concussions do not require surgery or major treatment. If you do not need to be hospitalized, you just need to follow your doctor’s advice.

Keep in mind that you will need to see your doctor again if your symptoms get worse within 24 to 72 hours after the injury.

For home improvement:

  • You can treat pain with aspirin-free medications. If you have a headache from a stroke, your doctor may suggest over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen.
  • Rest. If your concussion is due to exercise, do not exercise for a while. Your brain needs time to heal, so rest is very important. If you continue your sports activities, the coach must closely monitor you. If you do not wait long enough, you may have another stroke, which adds to your injury.
  • Prevent recurrence of stroke. A blow to the brain again can multiply its effect. This can lead to encephalitis, permanent brain damage, long-term disability or even death. Do not resume normal activities if you have symptoms.

You also need to know that some activities can make your symptoms worse. To prevent the symptoms from getting worse, do the following:

  • Messaging and looking at the mobile screen for a long time;
  • book reading;
  • watching TV;
  • computer games;
  • Listening to loud music;
  • Physical activities.

Treatment of stroke in children

Your child should refrain from physical activity and activities that require high concentration. You can start these activities little by little as the symptoms subside or disappear. To take care of your baby, do the following:

Rest (for 1 to 2 days after injury)

  • Let your child rest at home. Relaxing activities such as talking to family and friends, reading books, drawing, coloring and play games are appropriate. If your child’s symptoms interfere with these activities, your child should stop doing these things for a while.
  • Your child should look less at the screen. Using virtual networks, texting, video games, and watching TV can cause new symptoms or worsen old symptoms.
  • Make sure your child avoids all activities and sports that may cause re-injury (such as cycling and playing with friends).
  • Help your child get enough sleep. Your child should have a regular sleep-wake schedule, avoid staring at the screen and listening to loud music before bed, avoid caffeinated foods, and get enough sleep during the day.
  • If your child has a headache, you can give him or her a consultation with your doctor.

Light activity (usually a few days to a week after injury)

  • Your child can get a little more active, such as walking or watching TV. If his symptoms interfere with activity, your child should rest for a while and try again after a few minutes or longer.
  • After a few days, your child can go back to school. Be sure to consult your doctor and school staff to do this. Your child may need to stay in school shorter or have lighter homework first. See your doctor if your child is unable to return to school within 5 days of the stroke.
  • Your child should avoid all sports and activities that may lead to a new injury.
  • Make sure your baby gets enough sleep during the night. If he does not feel tired during the day, he does not need to sleep during the day.
  • If your child still needs medication for a headache, call your doctor.

Moderate activity (usually from one week after injury)

If the symptoms are almost gone, your child can resume most activities, including going to school. Of course, you should be careful that your child avoids all activities that may cause re-injury.

Normal activity (one month after injury)

  • If all the symptoms of a concussion are gone, your child can resume all activities except exercise.
  • To start exercising, the doctor must coordinate with the child’s coach and set a schedule for the child. Do not allow your child to participate in sports activities without consulting a doctor.

Concluding remarks

Most people usually recover completely after a stroke, but it may take months for the symptoms to go away. To prevent this unpleasant complication, it is better to protect your head and use special helmets in different sports.

Understanding the symptoms of a concussion and recognizing them in yourself and others will help you take timely action. You can also recover quickly and painlessly by following the said care.

Other sources: webmd

Warning! This article is for educational purposes only and you should consult your doctor or specialist to use it. more information

Source

kidshealth

clevelandclinic

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Traumatic brain injury in adults and children; How to diagnose and treat it

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