Have you ever been so fascinated by the charms of the work while watching a series or a movie or reading a book that you did not notice the passage of time ?! If the answer is yes, you have experienced disconnection from the environment. In this memo, we introduce the rupture disorder, talk about its types and symptoms, and examine its treatment strategies.
Although this is normal, but what if at other times and for no apparent reason you feel disconnected from your surroundings and do not feel the passage of time ?!
What is a rupture disorder?
Rupture disorder is a mental disorder that involves the rupture and loss of integrity between a person’s thoughts, feelings, memories, and identity. People with the disorder lose touch with reality; In such a way that they have difficulty in living their daily lives.
To better understand this disorder, consider this simple example that may occur to all of us:
- Suppose you are reading a book. After a while, you raise your head and realize that you have been studying for hours, without noticing the passage of time. In fact, you were so engrossed in the book that you did not notice the passage of time and the events around you. This is a kind of rupture; That is, your mind was disconnected from the environment.
The ability to break away from the environment is also a kind of mental defense mechanism; For example, people who are exposed to threats, fears, or very stressful situations (such as hostage-taking or a horrific accident) may be unable to recall what happened after the incident. This means that their minds are disconnected from what they have been experiencing so that one can find a way to escape the great fear and stress.
Types of rupture disorder
To date, three types of this disorder have been identified and classified. These three types of rupture disorders are described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as follows:
1. Disintegration with forgetfulness
The main indicator of this type of rupture is forgetfulness, which can not be related to medical reasons. The severity of this forgetfulness is more than ordinary daily forgetfulness. In this type of rupture, the person is unable to recall events, other people, or even themselves (especially after traumatic experiences).
Disruption-induced forgetfulness is often related to the time of the same experience; But in rare cases, it may involve complete forgetfulness. Sometimes this disorder causes a person to give up work and life and travel or wander in vain. The forgetfulness that occurs in this type may last from a few minutes to a few hours and in a few cases to months and years.
۲. Identity Disorder
This disorder, formerly known as multiple identity disorder, causes a person to develop different identities in their mind. One may feel the simultaneous presence of two or more independent identities in the mind as they speak to each other. One may think that one has been possessed by other identities. Each identity may have different names, ages, voices, personality traits, and behaviors.
Even some of these personality differences manifest themselves in one’s behavior; For example, the need to wear glasses because one of the identities feels short-sighted! People who experience this disorder often also suffer from amnesia. This type of rupture disorder should be considered the most serious and dangerous type; Because statistics show that about 70% of people who suffer from this type of rupture have committed suicide.
3. Depersonalization or unrealization disorder
This disorder includes a person’s separation from his or her identity; The way the person feels is outside his body. In this type of rupture disorder, the person watches the behavior, movements, speech, and in a word, in his mind, as if he were watching a movie of his own life.
The rest of the people or things around them may be in a foggy or fanciful state. Time may pass quickly or slowly, and the world may seem unreal. The symptoms of this disorder, which are also very serious, may only appear for a moment or may recur intermittently for years.
What are the signs and symptoms of rupture disorder?
Although in the previous section, while defining the types of rupture disorders, the symptoms of each disorder were also mentioned, but the signs and symptoms of this disorder can be summarized as follows:
- A sense of identity;
- Feelings of disconnection and emotions;
- Severe stress in the workplace and personal relationships;
- Inability to cope and manage stress and emotions;
- Memory forgetfulness and inability to recall people, objects, events, etc.
- Imagine that people and objects around you are not real or have been manipulated;
- Psychological problems such as depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts or behaviors.
What is the cause and roots of rupture disorder?
Rupture disorder is usually formed to deal with traumatic experience. Most children who are abused for a long time, physically, sexually, or emotionally, and who grow up in an environment full of fear and stress, are more likely to break up.
Children are more vulnerable because their identities are still being formed. More than an adult, a child can get away with looking at inappropriate experiences from a third-person perspective. If a child learns to detach himself from enduring pain, he may use this mechanism in other stages of life.
In general, these people are more prone to this disorder than others:
- Victims of war and natural disasters;
- People who are abducted or tortured;
- People who have had unpleasant experiences as children;
- Those who struggle with serious illnesses early in life.
What are the risks and consequences of rupture disorder?
People with this disorder may be at risk for other disorders or serious problems, such as:
- Eating disorders;
- Personality disorders;
- Post-traumatic stress disorder;
- Sexual dysfunction;
- Suicidal thoughts and behaviors;
- Alcohol and drug addiction;
- Depression and Anxiety Disorders;
- Serious problems in emotional and professional relationships;
- Self-harm (such as amputation or mutilation);
- Sleep disorders (such as nightmares, insomnia, or sleepwalking);
- Physical symptoms (such as non-epileptic seizures and lightheadedness).
How is a rupture disorder diagnosed?
Recognition of this disorder is possible only by psychologists. Methods of diagnosing this disorder include clinical examinations, psychoanalysis, and guidelines published in the Guide (DSM-5). Before starting diagnostic procedures, a range of medical tests must be performed to rule out possible medical factors that may be causing the symptoms.
The 3-step detection process is as follows:
- Physical examination: These examinations include answering questions and performing various tests, especially on the brain, to determine whether the forgetfulness or disconnection from reality is not due to brain damage.
- Psychoanalytic tests: The psychologist asks questions about thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to identify possible signs and symptoms of the disorder. It also receives information about the patient’s family with the patient’s permission.
- Data Comparison or Guide (DSM-5)At this stage, the specialist compares all the identified data and symptoms with a diagnostic and statistical guide to behavioral disorders to determine if the person has the disorder.
Treatment of rupture disorder
After the diagnosis process, treatment begins. Treatments may vary depending on the type of rupture disorder; But in general, psychotherapy and medication are used:
Psychotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for rupture disorder. Psychotherapy uses a variety of methods such as speech therapy, counseling and psychological therapy. In this method, the person talks to a specialist about the disorder. The specialist helps the person identify the roots of their disorder and teaches them ways to deal with the traumatic situation. As time goes on and more trust is established between the parties as well as the person becomes more proficient in controlling the disorder, the specialist will ask you to gradually talk about the traumatic experiences that have caused the disorder.
Although no medication is specifically designed to treat this disorder, your psychiatrist may prescribe antidepressants, anxiolytics, and antipsychotics to reduce and control the clinical symptoms.
Can rupture disorder be prevented?
As we have said, children who are exposed to abuse and physical, sexual or psychological harm are more likely to develop the disorder; So if a child is experiencing this condition or is likely to get it, we can help.
If the parents are one of the factors that inadvertently caused these factors, it can be prevented by educating and informing them. In any case, the family and the parents have a significant role in creating a healthy or unhealthy environment for their child, and any effort to empower them has a positive effect on the child’s upbringing and, consequently, his future.
But what if the child has a bad experience? For example, if a child reports sexual harassment, they should see a child physician and psychiatrist immediately to begin early treatment and psychiatric care to reduce the risk of further disorders.