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Introducing commonly used terms in project and program management

Study guide

“Project management” and “program management” are familiar terms in most businesses and industries. However, these terms and other specialized terms in this field may have different meanings for different people. This is often because people, without understanding the meaning beyond these words, hear them from others and then use them. This can lead to a lot of confusion! This is an instant reference for the terms commonly used in project and program management, along with their definitions.

This will help you find your way around the “talk” about project and program management. If your organization uses a specific project management methodology, always refer to your specific methodology glossary. In the following, you will become familiar with these terms and the definition of cases that may be ambiguous.

Terms related to individuals and organizations

1. Program Manager

The person in charge of the program.

2. Project Analyst

Someone who supports a project manager in large projects by conducting research, submitting documents, and tracking budgets and schedules.

3. project manager

A person who is responsible for ensuring that the project is delivered on time, on time and with the desired budget. Project managers must coordinate the activities of many professionals.

4. Project Office (Program)

In large projects and programs, there is often a program office that is equipped with the presence of the program office manager, and perhaps the supervisor and even the accountant. The task of the program office is to consolidate reports on regular progress by the various project managers for the program manager; The office maintains a central project documentation database, collects and executes fixed document formats, and performs other centralized management tasks to support project staff.

5. Project sponsor

A project “hero” is someone who wants to get the benefits of projects to improve the part of the organization for which he or she is responsible.

6. Beneficiaries

Stakeholders are groups or individuals who benefit from the project, but the benefit that each group enjoys is usually the group itself. Typical stakeholders may include stakeholders, customers, suppliers, partners, and project team members. Stakeholder management can be a very important part of a project manager or project sponsor job.

Terms related to documents

1. Business plan

A business plan describes why a project is done, the profit of the project, how to achieve it, how much it costs and how long it takes. The business plan is usually created in two stages: the initial business plan is theoretical and is used to get approval for the project. When this stage is complete, the project manager’s first responsibility will be to develop a complete business plan, including costs and precise timing. This usually has to be approved by the senior management team before the project can move forward.

2. Change control

If a change is required in some aspects of the basic design of the project, the change control document must be completed and approved. This document records the justification for the change, who approved it, and the impact this change has on cost and time. Approved changes are collected in the change log.

3. Post-implementation review (PIR)

The PIR is a review for several months after the project is completed to assess whether it has provided the business benefits that the project was supposed to deliver.

4. Project Charter

Project charters are created in the early stages of the project life cycle and include the overall purpose and scope of the project, as well as the names of sponsors, key stakeholders and the project manager. These charters are often necessary for the project during the early stages of approval.

5. Project Initiation Document (PID)

The PID, which is created in the early stages of the project life cycle, is a guide to the project that clearly defines the project justification, its goals, and how it is organized. This will make sure that everyone knows what the first step is. The project start document is more detailed than the project charter and will include a detailed business plan for the project as well as the project initial plan. This document is created after the project is approved.

6. Project spark

A document that usually launches a project. Senior executives create this document. It usually refers to what the project needs to succeed and how it fits into the overall strategy. It usually defines all the important constraints and boundaries of its scope. It may also include a business plan, or perhaps alternately the development of this initial business plan is the first task required before the project is fully approved for implementation.

7. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

The failure structure divides large project tasks into more manageable work or operational parts. These smaller parts can then be assigned to groups or individuals using the responsibility allocation matrix.

Terms related to monitoring and reporting

Common terms in project management in the field of reporting and monitoring

1. CARDI Registration (Constraints, Assumptions, Risks, Dependencies, Problems)

The CARDI register records Constraints, Assumptions, Risks, Dependencies, and Issues associated with the project. This record usually shows for each type, who identifies the constraint, who identifies the hypothesis, who identifies the risk, dependency, and problem; Who is responsible for managing it and the action that is proposed or implemented.

Of these five areas of registration, risk registration is generally the most widely used. A risk is a potential problem; Conversely, one problem is the risk that actually occurred.

2. RAG status

RAG is made up of Red-Amber-Green initials and describes the status of the project or part of the project on the project dashboard.

3. Project dashboard

The project dashboard is a visual report that shows the progress of projects during the program. This dashboard is most useful when it is published regularly, usually on a weekly basis; And it is very useful for program managers and sponsors.

Terminology terms

1. Critical path

During the project, many activities take place simultaneously. But some activities have to be done in order. The critical path of a project is the sequence of tasks that defines the minimum possible project time. Delay in any of the activities in this critical path delays the completion of the project.

2. Milestone

Milestones are the key to success or important events in larger projects. They are usually controlled by reporting project milestones.

3. Gantt chart

Gantt chart is a planning tool that helps project managers organize and schedule tasks to be completed in a project, and to communicate this schedule to other project members.

4. PERT chart

PERT charts are similar in appearance to critical path analysis charts, but try to more accurately estimate when each activity needs to do so, using a formula to calculate the most likely timeframe for each activity based on the longest and shortest times and They also do the expected time.

Estimating time is an important issue in time management, and there is a tendency for people to underestimate the time required to complete an activity. Using PERT helps people make better assessments of time.

5. chopping

The technique of shortening the project schedule to achieve the minimum cost by adding resources. In other words, the critical path of the project and its timing is “fragmented” or reduced by allocating additional resources to its important activities.

Terms related to cost

1. Fixed price

It is a form of contract pricing in which the price has been agreed in advance with the contractor for the delivery of certain works. Project managers are interested in this form of pricing because it allows them to control the cost of their projects. On the other hand, contractors do not like it, because if unforeseen circumstances occur, they run the risk of failure, which means they have to work harder than expected; Or if they underestimated the amount of work they needed for the first delivery. As a result, the prices charged for fixed-price contracts must be higher to cover this risk.

2. Pricing plus costing

Cost-based pricing is a form of contract pricing in which the contractor calculates the cost of labor based on the total cost of the project plus a fixed cost or (usually) a percentage of the total cost. This form of pricing is attractive to contractors because it reduces their risk. It is usually less attractive to project managers because it makes budgeting difficult, which means that if time periods are extended, or if more equipment is needed, the project will run the risk of additional costs. Cost-based pricing is particularly risky for project managers because contractors are not motivated in any way to work quickly and efficiently (in fact, it encourages contractors to make projects last longer).

3. Pricing based on materials and time

A form of pricing similar to pricing plus costing is done based on the amount of time spent on it and the cost of materials used.

General terms

General terms in project management

1. Foundation

Approved project blueprint (including scope, budget, and schedule). The progress of the project is compared with this basis and any changes in the original design are expressed accordingly.

2. Area

The domain in which the project operates. This domain covers systems, relationships, processes, departments, and external stakeholders (both suppliers and customers). It is also sometimes helpful to state what the project and its scope include, to identify things that are outside the scope of the project. Projects that undergo “creep” will most likely go beyond their original schedule and budget.

3. Intensification

If there is a problem in the project that the direct manager cannot solve, he or she will move up the project or program management hierarchy to reach someone who can come up with a solution.

4. Slip

This is the amount of time that a project or project activity is behind schedule.

5. Key projects

The name “keychain” stems from the idea that the project sponsor can turn the key to the delivered project and start exploiting it. Key projects are often part of larger projects, such as build and sell, outsourcing the building to an outsourced contractor. The builder and seller expects all building plumbing components to be fully operational by the time the plumbing project is completed.

6. Prince 2

PRINCE2, which consists of the initials PRojects IN Controlled Environments, is probably the most widely used project management methodology. This methodology was originally developed for use in IT public sector projects in the UK, but is now used by a wide range of private sector industries around the world.

7. پی‌ام‌باک

The Project Management Knowledge Body (PMBOK) is a global standard for methods and information in project management. The standard was published by the US-based Project Management Institute.

8. Agile project management (Ajail)

Agile project management uses short development phases and integrated testing phases instead of using a single development phase with traditional “cascading” project management approaches. Suitable for projects that are progressing rapidly or are subject to intermittent change, such as IT projects and startups.

9. Entrance

Many large projects are divided into several stages, such as research, development, testing and dissemination. Before each stage, there is an input, and it is the project manager who decides when the project is ready to go through to begin the next stage.

Project management is not limited to these terms. We have tried to introduce you to some of the most commonly used words. If you have project management experience, how often do you use these terms? What other commonly used words do you think could be added to this list?




Introducing commonly used terms in project and program management

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