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How to change the subject without confusing the audience?

Study guide

Whether talking in a group or talking to a friend, there are times when we want to change the subject and start something new. But it is not so simple. In order not to confuse the audience and not to miss the line of speech, it is better to get acquainted with the concept of transition in speech. Transitions allow audiences to follow our careers; They keep the flow of the speech. Join us to learn more about this.

Shaping the speech

Once you have identified the purpose of your talk and identified your target audience, you should take the following steps to pay for your presentation.

  1. Form a general theorem. Processing a presentation requires you to start by turning your goal into a general theorem.
  2. Generate the main points and organize them strategically: After designing a theorem, you will be able to produce the main points that support this claim. Be sure to relate and organize these tips so that the audience can easily follow the flow of your ideas. You must be clear about two to five key points. Keep the main points separate (transitions separate ideas); Stay balanced while devoting time to each point.
  3. Draw an introduction and conclusion. Once you have formed your main points, you should complete the introduction and conclusion. First, write the introduction. The conclusion, in fact, repeats most of what was said in the introduction. The introduction initiates the speech and is responsible for attracting the attention of the audience; The introduction relates the topic to the audience and provides credibility for the speaker, as well as reviewing the main points of the presentation.
  4. Replace transitions: Before making a presentation, your final step is to design transitions that guide the audience between the presentation sections and between the distinct and original ideas.

Take the final step and cleverly incorporate the transitions into the presentation text. Transitions play an important role in a successful speech.

The importance of transitions

Imagine this scenario. You are driving and you want to go from point A to point B. At the beginning of the path, you will see a sign telling you that you are on the right path; But after that, you just kill and you kill. The road turns; There are detours and forks in the road; But there is no sign that will guide you to your destination. Are you on the right track? How did you get to this point? What is happening? Where are the signs that should have told you the road has changed and you should go this way instead?

In lectures, transitions play such a role. Consider the example of the road above and use it for your speech:

Your audience will do their best to follow you as you speak. However, your speech may have deviant paths; For example, go from one topic to another. Can your audience make the right connection between different ideas, or is it lost during your talk? Also, the audience is likely to lose focus and wonder how you got from one subject to another when they became distracted; They do not know how you got there, which makes it difficult for them to follow the talk.

Appropriate transitions not only solve such problems, but also eliminate the situation that distracts the audience. Transitions facilitate the flow of speech. Speech without clever transitions often seems sloppy and discrete, and may even seem sloppy and sloppy. Using transitions allows your audience to follow your presentation in a comfortable way. The words you use can guide them and signal that you are moving from point to point or show that you are emphasizing a point.

Types of transitions

Transitions facilitate the flow of speech. Speeches often seem fragmented, scattered, and disorganized, without transitions. Transitions in a variety of ways allow speakers to effectively explain their core ideas and to follow a continuous and coherent flow in moving from one idea to another. There are many different types of transitions; Such as transition phrases, internal reviews, internal summaries and guides.

1. Transitional transition

It is a word or phrase that indicates that the speaker has finished describing an idea and is moving on to another idea.


  • However;
  • But;
  • However;
  • On the other hand;
  • Because;
  • And;
  • Eventually


In addition to being hilarious, the TV series “Durhami” is also entertaining; As a result, many people have tried to imitate the managerial personality; But they were not successful at all.

The speaker here tries to smooth the transition to the next idea or topic by stating a conclusion and using the words and phrases used.

2. Internal reviews

Internal reviews are more detailed than simple transition expressions; But in fact, they have the same function. While the review in the introduction reveals all the points that will be made in the lecture, the internal review summarizes the important points that will be expressed within the body of the lecture.

Internal reviews force the audience to listen to the key components within the main points. Examples of internal reviews include “there are a few things I want to say here”, “both a problem and a solution can be suggested” or “a few things to mention for this section”. Each of these sentences often has to be followed by a more detailed and, of course, concise explanation.


  • I will focus on two main points: why Sara and Mohammad should get married and why Farnaz and Behzad should not get married.
  • Before I start, I would like to review three of the best parts of the Durhami series, which are:

3. Internal summaries

Internal summaries, unlike internal summaries, review key points that the speaker has made recently. These regular summaries help the audience remember the key points made by the speaker.

Examples of internal summaries are sentences such as “I checked that…” “Now that I have talked about a few key points” or “To summarize what has been discussed”, each of which will be followed by more specific but concise summaries. Internal summaries reinforce key lectures.


  • I hope I have made it clear that I think Durhami has been the best TV show to date; Because it communicates well with the audience; It makes different people the subject and it is funny.


Guides are often numerical signs of the main body points. Many speakers use “first, second, third” counts to indicate where they stand.

The guides allow the audience to memorize key points and follow the speech. They clearly distinguish between the main points of the body as well as between the body from the introduction and the conclusion. Guides can even be used in the form of questions.


  • I will first talk to you about the importance of convincing others that the Durhami TV series is great.
  • To begin with, we need to talk about what the “Durhami” TV series was like.
  • Why do you think the Durham TV series is so great today?

Transitions are very important for lectures; Without them, the audience might think that you are confused in your speech.

Using transitions

When using transitions, use them with body language to make them more effective.


Transitions have a huge impact on improving the quality of your speech. By combining transitions with body language, you can really bring the quality of transitions to life in your speech: You might be surprised to find that only 7% of the information you convey to others is through your language. The rest is as follows:

  • 38% of how you speak – sound quality, accent, volume, emphasis, remarks, speed of speech, volume, pitch, etc.
  • 55% of body language – posture, posture, eye contact, facial expressions, head and body movements, utterances, contact, etc.

When you have information, it is easy to understand why body language can make your transitions more noticeable.

Accompanying transitions with body language

Transitions with hand and arm movements

You can probably think of a large number of skilled speakers who have used finger gestures or other hand gestures to emphasize a point. Former US President John F. Kennedy did the same, as did Bill Clinton. Be careful though; If there is a warning tone in your voice, try to avoid pointing; Because it sounds insulting. An open hand with a visible palm is less confrontational and more likely to be seen positively.

Other hand and arm movements can be helpful – and even positive – if chosen correctly and repeated frequently. An active speaker who shows each phrase with hand or arm gestures can create entertainment or distraction; However, the movements that are used from time to time give more value and dignity to the important points.

How can you take advantage of a transition with this move? Perhaps you are explaining a strategy that has been implemented in the past. You want to emphasize that we must avoid past mistakes. To emphasize this point, you might say, “However, we must be careful not to repeat past mistakes.” And when you say this sentence, you can use hand movements such as shaking your finger or open palm.

Transitions with stepping back and forth

People listened when Steve Jobs spoke. The hype surrounding the unveiling of his new products had a huge impact; But his style of presentation was also very important. He accompanied the movement with his style of speech. He did not just stand behind the podium to speak; He knew very well how to strengthen his story by taking advantage of the transitions and changing his position on the stage.

You can do the same. Maybe talk about the present and then try to take the audience to the past. To do this, perhaps from a phrase such as “Let me take you back.” use. As you say this, slowly move left or right to indicate that you are moving towards the past tense. Are you going to the next time? Move in the opposite direction. Going back in time? Take the same path you took earlier; This way you can constantly attract the attention of the audience and keep them with you.

Maybe you talk about a positive topic and then you want to talk about a negative topic; To do this, perhaps from a phrase like “Now I have to take you to a different place.” Take advantage. As you say this, take a step back or even emphasize it with backward and oblique steps. Both movements indicate that you are now moving towards the negative side of your speech.

Want to make a positive point? When you say your transition phrase, take a step forward.

Transitions with other gestures

Remember that your head and face are the key to your expression. With the right movement and posture of your face, you can add emphasis where needed.

Exaggerating the raising of the eyebrows or removing the glasses at the right moment can seem to indicate your understanding of the importance of a particular point. Expressing negative points when nodding to the parties or expressing positive points by confirming it with the head are standard tools to strengthen the transition. Use these gestures with transitions.

Lastly, don’t forget to change your tone when performing transitions. As you write your passages in the summary of your talk, think carefully about the presentation methods you can use.


How to change the subject without confusing the audience?

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