The growth of abnormal cells in the bones is a major cause of cancer in these areas of the body. Under these conditions, the bone tissue is damaged and loses its normal function and shape. In the following, we will introduce you to more about bone cancer. We will introduce its types to you and tell you about its symptoms and treatment strategies. Stay with us.
Types of bone cancer
a. Malignant or primary bone cancer
It is rare for a cancerous tumor to become malignant and develop in the bones themselves. In these conditions, the disease is called primary or malignant bone cancer, which has a much more serious and serious condition. Malignant bone cancer has its types, which we will introduce in the following.
1. Multiple myeloma (multiple myeloma)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the most common type of malignant bone cancer and is caused by cancer cells in the bone marrow. This can cause tumors in different parts of the body. Multiple myeloma affects adults. Among the types of bone cancer, the most hopeful are those with multiple myeloma. This group of patients sometimes recovers even without the need for treatment.
Osteosarcoma or Osteogenic Sarcoma is another type of malignant bone cancer that usually affects children and adolescents. Of course, it is also possible for adults to get it. Osteosarcoma cancerous tumors are more commonly found on the tips of the long bones of the arms and legs and affect the hard tissue that makes up the outer layer of the bones.
This type of malignant bone cancer usually affects the bones of the pelvis, thighs and shoulders and is more common in adults. Chondrosarcoma is the second most common type of primary bone cancer (after multiple myeloma), and malignant tumors form in the hard, hard tissue that lies between the bones and connects them. It is also possible to develop tumors in cartilage cells.
4. Ewing’s Sarcoma
Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of malignant or primary bone cancer that usually affects the soft tissue that surrounds the bones of children and adolescents. Of course, there is a second case in which malignant tumors develop directly inside the bone.
There are also two very rare types of malignant bone cancer called fibrosarcoma and chordoma. Tumors of the first type are more likely to occur behind the bones of adult knees. The second type usually affects people 30 years of age and older, and the most common site of tumor formation is in the upper or lower parts of the spine.
B. Secondary bone cancer
In most cases, the tumors that cause bone cancer are benign and move from other parts of the body and settle in the bones. In this case, a phenomenon called “metastasis” occurs; This means that the tumor did not form directly in the bone itself and entered it from somewhere else. In this case, the patient will develop secondary bone cancer. The most common types of cancer in which tumors are likely to travel to the bones are:
- Lung cancer;
- Breast Cancer;
- Prostate Cancer.
Symptoms of bone cancer
Symptoms may not be noticeable to the patient in the early stages and he or she may not be aware of the disease. In this case, they will only notice the abnormal condition of the bones and the presence of a tumor by performing tests and imaging. However, if there are symptoms, they will usually include the following:
- Feeling tired or extremely tired;
- Noticeable stiffness and stiffness of the long bones of the arms or legs;
- Feeling of pain and swelling in the affected bone / bones.
There are other symptoms that may occur. These symptoms include the following:
- Night sweats;
- Swelling of the areas around the bones;
- Lameness (if the bone / bones of the lower torso, including the legs, thighs, or pelvis, are affected by the disease).
Diagnosis of bone cancer
The process of diagnosing the disease is such that by performing various tests, they determine the stage in which the disease is. The location of the tumor, the amount of damage to the bone / bones, and the amount of damage to the tissues around the bones will vary depending on the stage of the disease. These steps include the following:
- first stage Bone cancer in which the tumor / tumors have not spread to the tissues around the bone;
- second stage In which the tumor / cancerous tumors have not spread to the tissues, but have become aggressive and threaten the normal and healthy shape and function of the tissues;
- third level Bone cancer in which the tumor (s) have invaded one or more areas of bone;
- The fourth step Where the tumor / cancerous tumors have entered the tissues around the bones and have also spread to other parts of the body such as the lungs and brain.
The specialist doctor, with the help of the following strategies, determines the stage in which the disease is:
- Bone Scan: It determines the condition of the bones;
- blood test: With its help, the specialist doctor will look for two enzymes that can be a sign of leukemia;
- Tissue examination (Biopsy): Diagnosis of bone cancer by removing and examining the condition of a piece of living tissue around it;
- Various shooting experiments: Items such as X-rays, MRIs, and CT scans that determine the condition of the inner layers and deeper bones.
Treatment of bone cancer
The treatment process for this disease will vary depending on the following factors:
- Patient age;
- Disease stage;
- Tumor size and position;
- General condition of the patient in terms of health.
If the cancerous tumor is benign, only medication may be used to treat the disease, and the tumor may be checked occasionally while taking the medication. If the doctor determines that there is a possibility of the tumor spreading to other areas of the body, he or she will remove it by performing surgery or using other treatment strategies. Sometimes there is a possibility of recurrence of the tumor after the treatment process and the patient recovers.
Malignant cancerous tumors are more difficult to treat and in this case, the help of several doctors with different specialties will be needed. The type of treatment strategy will also vary depending on the progression of the disease and the stage it is in. If the cancer cells are only in the bone tumor and the surrounding area, the process of controlling and treating the disease will be a little easier. However, if the cancer cells have spread to the bone from other parts of the body, the situation becomes a little more complicated and it will not be possible to cure the disease with these simplifications.
There are solutions that are commonly used to treat bone cancer. These include the following:
- Amputation: If the tumor is large, has struck the nerves, or has penetrated into the arteries, there may be a need for amputation;
- Chemotherapy: In chemotherapy, they kill the tumor cells with the help of drugs. It is usually used before and after surgery and is also used to treat secondary bone cancer;
- Surgery: With the help of surgery, the part of the bone that is affected by the disease is removed and metal implants are placed in its place. The muscles, tendons, and tissues around the bones remain intact during surgery;
- Radiation Therapy: In this method, they emit powerful x-rays that kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. It is usually used in conjunction with surgery.
Frequently Asked Questions About Bone Cancer
1. Is bone cancer fatal?
The answer to this question will vary depending on various factors such as the severity of the disease, its type and the stage it is in. The condition for patients with most types of bone cancer is that they are up to about 80 percent more likely to survive than normal people (up to five years after a definitive diagnosis).
In some cases, when strategies such as amputation are used, this is the worst consequence that the patient suffers and after that, the disease is no longer considered a threat to his life. Overall, more than 75% of people diagnosed with definitive bone cancer survive at least 5 years after diagnosis.
2. Is there a cure for bone cancer?
Yes. The most common treatment is surgery, which removes tumors from the affected areas. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy and other similar treatments are also used to treat this cancer. This will depend on the patient’s condition and his or her chances of developing a tumor in his or her bones again after the course of treatment.
3. What causes bone cancer? What factors increase the risk of developing it?
The exact cause of various types of bone cancer has not yet been determined by researchers; But there are factors that make it more likely to occur. These factors include the following:
- Genetic issues or disorders and family history of cancer;
- Paget’s disease of bone: Following this disease, the risk of bone cancer will increase slightly.
- Treatment for other types of cancer: Cancer can develop in the bones of people who are receiving treatment for other types of cancer. Those who have used therapies such as radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation and chemotherapy.
4. Which type of bone cancer most threatens children?
Osteosarcoma is one of the most common types of bone cancer and children are more likely to get it than other types. Ewing sarcoma is another type that children and adolescents are at high risk for.
5. If you experience any symptoms, what is the need to see a doctor and perform the relevant tests?
If you or your child is experiencing pain that has the following conditions, it is important to see a doctor and get tested to find out the root cause:
- Pain that gets worse at night;
- Pain that does not help with the use of common painkillers;
- Pain that has recurred (ie relieved for a while and started again).
in the end
It should be noted that the treatment of bone cancer and the common strategies used for this purpose, over time, cause problems with the function and health of the heart, lungs, brain and hearing, bones and fertility. The patient who is undergoing treatment should see a doctor on a regular basis so that in case of any possible problem, it can be addressed in the very early stages. In addition, there is a possibility of recurrence of cancerous tumors after treatment, and you should visit medical centers from time to time and according to the opinion of a specialist for testing.
If you have any experience with this disease, from the course of treatment to other issues such as tests and post-treatment care, please tell us and the audience “how” that will be very valuable to us. Also, if you would like to know more about this cancer and related issues, ask your questions in the “Submit a Comment” section.
Other sources: healthline