Dyslexia is a learning disability that affects a person’s ability to read, write, spell, and speak. This disorder can lead to the failure of some intelligent students in schools. Read more about this disorder, its symptoms and treatment methods for dyslexia.
What is dyslexia?
Dyslexia is a learning disorder that affects a person’s ability to read, spell, write, and speak. Children with dyslexia are often smart and hardworking, but their problem is to relate the letters they see to the sounds of those letters.
Children with dyslexia often have normal vision and are as smart as their peers, but they have more difficulty in school because they take longer to read. Difficulty processing words can also impair their ability to spell, write, and speak clearly.
What causes dyslexia?
This disorder is related to genes and is a genetic disease; Because of this, the disease is often seen in families. If your parents, siblings or other family members have the disorder, you are more likely to have dyslexia.
This disorder is caused by differences in the parts of the brain that process language. The results of brain scans of people with dyslexia show that the areas of the brain that should be active when studying are not working properly.
When children learn to read, they first realize what each word sounds like. Then they learn how to put these sounds together to make words. Finally, they must understand the meaning of the words.
In children with dyslexia, the brain hardly associates letters with their sounds and then combines them into words. So people with dyslexia may call the word “lesson” “cold.” Because of this disorder, reading a text may be slow and difficult for people with the disorder.
Dyslexia is different for everyone. Some people experience a mild form of it that eventually learns how to manage it, and others have a little more difficulty overcoming it than others. But even if children can not completely overcome this disorder, they can still continue their education and succeed in life.
What are the symptoms of dyslexia?
It is difficult to diagnose the symptoms of the disorder until the child has gone to school. The teacher may be the first to notice the symptoms of the disorder; Especially if the child has difficulty reading, spelling, and following instructions in the classroom.
Symptoms of dyslexia change at different ages and stages of life. Every child with dyslexia has unique strengths and faces different challenges. However, there are some general signs that your child may need more help at school.
Symptoms of dyslexia in preschool children
Children with dyslexia have difficulty processing language. Preschoolers with learning disabilities differ from their peers in language skills. They take longer to talk and write than their friends, and sometimes they mix letters and words.
Preschool children with dyslexia may show the following symptoms:
- It is difficult for them to learn or memorize the letters of the alphabet;
- They mispronounce familiar words;
- They have difficulty recognizing letters and, for example, confuse the letter “T” with “D”;
- They have difficulty recognizing rhyming patterns.
Symptoms of dyslexia in elementary school students
The symptoms of dyslexia become more apparent in the early stages. Children with this disorder need more time to learn to read and write than their classmates.
Elementary students with dyslexia:
- They read more slowly than other children of the same age;
- Cannot distinguish between specific letters or words;
- They do not pronounce the letters with the sounds they have;
- Write letters or numbers upside down;
- Have difficulty pronouncing words when reading;
- They cannot understand what they have read;
- They write quietly;
- Have difficulty spelling words;
- It is said that the words written on the page blur or jump around;
- They have difficulty following some instructions.
Symptoms of dyslexia after primary school
Children who have been able to hide their symptoms in elementary school may have difficulty in middle school or high school. They may be socially excluded because it becomes more difficult for them to communicate with their peers. Middle and high school students with dyslexia:
- Have difficulty writing clearly (make mistakes in spelling, grammar and punctuation);
- It takes a long time to complete their homework or answer exam questions;
- They have confused handwriting;
- They speak quietly;
- They refrain from reading aloud;
- They use the wrong words, such as “discovery” instead of “shoes”;
- They can’t remember the names of the words, so they believe a lot.
If your child has these symptoms, talk to the teacher to find out what the situation is in the classroom. Then see your doctor and have a hearing and vision assessment to make sure they have no other problems, such as hearing loss or vision loss. If the cause of these disorders is dyslexia, your doctor will refer you to a specialist for further testing and treatment.
The earlier this disorder is diagnosed in children, the sooner they can start treatment.
Symptoms of dyslexia in adults
Adults with dyslexia may find it difficult to do the following:
- Good reading speed or activities that involve study;
- Spelling, memorizing or memorizing words;
- Taking notes or transcribing;
- Do math exercises, learn another language, or memorize numbers such as passwords or PINs;
- Order in work and paying attention to deadlines.
If you think you have dyslexia, see a specialist so he or she can diagnose your problems.
Types of dyslexia
Experts have developed categories for this disorder. Familiarity with different types of dyslexia gives educators the opportunity to develop specific solutions to the child’s needs to best support them.
1. Phonological Dyslexia
People with this disorder have difficulty deciphering or creating the sound of words. Phonological dyslexia is the most common type of dyslexia.
۲. Rapid Naming Dyslexia
People who have difficulty naming colors, numbers, and letters quickly may develop dyslexia. This type of dyslexia may be related to reading speed and processing speed for reading.
3. Double Deficit Dyslexia
A person with Dyslexia has difficulty reading in two ways. These two aspects often involve quick naming and recognizing sounds in words.
4. Surface Dyslexia
A person who can pronounce new words easily but has difficulty recognizing familiar words may have superficial dyslexia. Experts believe that the brain of people with this type of dyslexia can not recognize the appearance of a word to process the word quickly.
5. Visual Dyslexia
When a child has difficulty remembering what he or she has seen on a page, he or she may develop visual dyslexia. This disorder affects visual processing and causes the brain to not receive a complete picture of what the eyes see.
6. Primary Dyslexia
If dyslexia is caused by an inherited genetic disease, it is considered primary dyslexia. A child whose parents have dyslexia is more likely to get it.
7. Secondary Dyslexia
When brain development problems occur in the womb, a neurological disorder can lead to dyslexia.
8. Acquired Dyslexia
Dyslexia can sometimes occur when brain damage or brain diseases affect the centers responsible for language processing in the brain. This type of dyslexia is also called trauma dyslexia because it is caused by a trauma to the brain and is the only type of dyslexia that has a known cause.
What is the treatment for dyslexia?
If your child has dyslexia, several different treatments can improve his or her ability to read and write. These therapy and exercise programs help children connect with their peers at school.
The younger children are, the better their chances of successful treatment. Of course, even adults with dyslexia can improve their skills.
Dyslexia treatments vary from person to person, and experts recommend appropriate treatments for the individual.
To find the right treatment for your child, your doctor or educator will perform tests to check your child’s reading and writing skills. An educational psychologist can also do tests to see if learning disabilities are due to problems such as depression or ADHD. After a thorough diagnosis, you can work with your child’s doctor, teacher, and educators to create a treatment and education plan.
Educational reading methods for people with dyslexia
There are several reading instruction designed for children with dyslexia:
- Everton Gillingham Method: This is a step-by-step technique that teaches children how to match letters to sounds and recognize letter sounds in words.
- Multisensory training: This technique teaches children how to use all their senses (touch, sight, hearing, smell and movement) to learn new skills. For example, a child may swipe his or her finger on embossed letters to learn how to spell it.
School is not the only place your child can learn these skills. You can improve your children’s reading and writing skills at home. Study with your child whenever you can. Help them say words they have trouble pronouncing.
Here are some tips to help children and adults with dyslexia:
- Study in a quiet and distracted place;
- Listen to the audiobook and read with it at the same time;
- Divide reading and other tasks into small sections to make them controllable;
- Ask your teacher or principal for help if needed;
- Join support groups for children or adults with dyslexia;
- Get enough rest and eat healthy foods.
As the child gets older, he learns how to manage his disorder. Learning disabilities should not prevent them from excelling in school, going to college or having a good career in the future.
Other sources: webmd